Tentang Pengkafiran Filosof dan Hukum Mempelajari Filsafat

Oleh: Prof. Dr. Rd. Mulyadhi Kartanegara

Ketika para fuqaha mengkafirkan para filosof berdasarkan ijma’, maka menarik untuk menyimak tanggapan Ibn Rusyd. Kata beliau pengkafiran terhadap filosof hanya bisa dilakukan oleh orang-orang yang mengerti filsafat, sedangkan fuqaha tak tahu apapun tentang filsafat, sehingga kesimpulan mereka tidak valid, dan pentakfiran menjadi batal.

Adapun hukum mempelajari filsafat menurut beliau adalah sunnah bahkan wajib berdasarkan kepada ayat qur’an yang menyeru manusia untuk merenungkan alam semesta dengan metode yang benar. Pertanyaannya adalah siapakah diantara kaum Muslimin yang melakukan perenungan mendalam tentang alam? Mereka tidak lain daripada para filosof, karena menurut Ibn Rusyd merekalah yang secara serius melaksanakan perenungan terhadap alam dengan metode yang benar. Jadi berfilsafat dalam arti merenungkan ciptaan Allah jelaslah tidak terlarang…bahkan dianjurkan oleh agama. Begitu pendapat Ibn Rusyd dalam bukunya “Fashl al-maqal.”

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